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Operators are special symbols used for specific purposes. An operator is a symbol that tells the compiler to perform specific mathematical or logical manipulations. The various types of operators are:

- Arithmetical operators
- Assignment operators
- Increment/Decrement Operators
- Logical operators
- Relational operator
- Conditional operators
- Bitwise Operators
- Special operators

**Arithmetical operators**

Arithmetical operators are used to performs simple arithmetic operation. These operators can be used with both integral and floating-point data types except Modulus or remainder % operator which is used only with the integral data type.

Arithmetic operators come under binary operators. Operators that have two operands are called binary operators.

Operator |
Description |

+ | Adds two operands |

– | Subtracts second operand from the first |

* | Multiply both operands |

/ | Divide numerator by de-numerator |

% | Modulus Operator and remainder of after an integer division |

2. **Assignment operator**

As the name suggests, the assignment operator ‘=’ is used for assigning a variable to a value. This operator takes the expression on its right-hand-side and places it into the variable on its left-hand-side.

For example a=5;

**Compound Assignment Operators**

Operator |
Example |
Equivalent to |

+ = | X + = Y | X = X + Y |

– = | X – = Y | X = X – Y |

% = | X % = Y | X = X % Y |

/= | X / = Y | X = X / Y |

*= | X * = Y | X = X * Y |

** 3. Increment and Decrement Operators**

These operators are also called unary operators. Increment operator ‘++’ and Decrement operator ‘–‘ are used for incrementing and decrementing the value of a variable by 1. The increment/decrement operator can be used with any type of variable but it cannot be used with any constant. Increment and decrement operators each have two forms, pre and post.

**Prefix operators: **In Prefix form first variable is first incremented/decremented, then evaluated.

- Prefix Increment
- Prefix decrement

**Postfix operators: **In Postfix form first variable is first evaluated, then incremented/decremented.

- Postfix increment
- Postfix decrement

Example with increment operation :

int x,y;

int a=5,b=10;

x = ++a; //add one to a, store the result back in x

y= b++; //store the value of b to y then add one to b

x will be 6

y will be 10

a will be 6

b will be 11

**Also Read : C Operators tricky question**

4. **Logical Operators:**

The logical operators are used to combine one or more relational expression. The logical operators are

Operator |
Description |

&& | Called Logical AND operator. If both the operands are non zero then condition becomes true. |

|| | Called Logical OR Operator. If any of the two operands is non zero then condition becomes true. |

! | Called Logical NOT Operator. Use to reverses the logical state of its operand. If a condition is true then Logical NOT operator will make false. |

**5. Relational operators**

The relational operators are used to test the relation between two values. All relational operators are binary operators and therefore require two operands. A relational expression returns zero when the relation is false and a non-zero when it is true. The following table shows the relational operators.

Relational Operators |
Meaning |

< | Less than |

<= | Less than or equal to |

== | Equal to |

> | Greater than |

>= | Greater than or equal to |

! = | Not equal to |

6. **Conditional operator**

The conditional operator ?: is called ternary operator as it requires three operands. The format of the conditional operator is:

Conditional_ expression ? expression1 : expression2;

If the value of conditional expression is true then the expression1 is evaluated, otherwise expression2 is evaluated.int a = 1, b = 2;

x = (a > b) ? a : b;The condition evaluates to false, therefore x will take the value of b. Hence x=2

** 7. Bitwise Operators:**

Bitwise operator works on bits and perform bit by bit operation.

Operator |
Description |
Meaning |

& | Binary AND Operator | It copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands. |

| | Binary OR Operator | It copies a bit if it exists in either operand. |

^ | Binary XOR Operator | It copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both. |

~ | Binary Ones Complement Operator | It is unary and has the effect of ‘flipping’ bits. |

<< | Binary Left Shift Operator. | The left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand. |

>> | Binary Right Shift Operator. | The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand. |

**8. Special Operator**

**The comma operator**

The comma operator gives left to right evaluation of expressions. When the set of expressions has to be evaluated for a value, only the rightmost expression is considered.

int a=1, b=2, c=3, i;

**The sizeof operator**

The sizeof operator can be used to find how many bytes are required for an object to store in memory. For example

sizeof (char) gives 1

sizeof (int) gives 2

sizeof (float) gives 4

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